سرطان دم leukemia

Leukemia

Leukemia is a cancer of the blood or bone marrow and is characterized by an abnormal proliferation of blood cells, usually white blood cells (leukocytes).

Classification

Leukemia is clinically and pathologically subdivided into several large groups.

The first division is between its acute and chronic forms:

🔷Acute leukemia is characterized by the rapid increase of immature blood cells.

This crowding makes the bone marrow unable to produce healthy blood cells. Immediate treatment is required in acute leukemia due to the rapid progression and accumulation of the malignant cells .

🔶Chronic leukemia is distinguished by the excessive build up of relatively mature, but still abnormal, white blood cells.

Typically taking months or years to progress, the cells are produced at a much higher rate than normal cells, resulting in many abnormal white blood cells in the blood. Whereas acute leukemia must be treated immediately, chronic forms are sometimes monitored for some time before treatment to ensure maximum effectiveness of therapy.

🔵Major types of leukemia :-

🔹Acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL)

is the most common type of leukemia in young children.

─This disease also affects adults, especially those age 65 and older. Standard treatments involve chemotherapy and radiation.

─The survival rates vary by age: 85% in children and 50% in adults.

🔸Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)

most often affects adults over the age of 55. It sometimes occurs in younger adults, but it almost never affects children.

Two-thirds of affected people are men.

The five-year survival rate is 75%. It is incurable, but there are many effective treatments.

🔹Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) occurs more commonly in adults than in children, and more commonly in men than women.

AML is treated with chemotherapy.

The five-year survival rate is 40%.

🔸Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) occurs mainly in adults.

A very small number of children also develop this disease.

Acute Leukemia


Evaluation of Acute Leukemia


Different Between Major types of leukemia


Chronic Leukemia ..

Symptoms

All symptoms associated with leukemia can be attributed to other diseases.

✴ Acut leukemia symptoms include:

●Bone and joint pain

●Enlarged lymph nodes, spleen, liver, ●kidneys, and/or testicles

●Headaches

●Vomiting

●Confusion and seizures (when excess cells collect in the brain or central nervous system)

●Unexplained weight loss

●Night sweats

✴Chronic leukemia symptoms include:

●Feeling tired or rundown

●Unexplained loss of weight or appetite

●Shortness of breath during normal physical activity

●Pale skin

●Pain or discomfort on the upper left side of the stomach (caused by an enlarged spleen)

●Night sweats

●Bleeding easily

●Fever

💢 Causes and risk factors

There is no single known cause for all of the different types of leukemia.

The different leukemias likely have different

causes.

✺Known causes include:

 ➢Natural and artificial ionizing radiation

 ➢Viruses such as Human T-lymphotropic virus

 ➢Some chemicals, notably benzene and alkylating agents ‘for previous malignancies

➢Genetics; familial incidence, chromosomal abnormalities in leukemic patients.

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Symptoms of Leukemia


Common Symptoms of Leukemia ..

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